was thinking for a long time how to start this book and what to put between its bindings. Happenings which this book should be consisted of are so different in details that it wasn’t easy to reduce them to the common factor so that they would make a circle entirety. There was a dilemma how to single out, from the abundant material that is offered, those contents that would credibly present the real personalities and their destinies, burdened by the vulnerable chilhood. Their moving stories should bear witnesses to the time and people who marked that time with their blood and Serbian children’s tears and tortures that found themselves in the claws of a newly founded state, which bestiality wasn’t recorded in the history of the humanity before that time (1941-1945). So many massive tortures of the children (around ten thousand) and giving free reins to sadistic desires over the weak and innocent human creatures was coming out of limits of humanity, and it was exceeding the animal instincts, too. A man as a thinking creature was loosing his mind and let himself to murderous passions that are typical for persons of disturbed minds, the ones that don’t know what they are doing or they are doing automatically what they are ordered by somebody else. These persons are imbued by the irracional hatred towards those whom they define as the ones who disturb them even if the innocent children are in question.
This is how it looks like when one pay attention and estimates details. But, when you do the deeper analysis of the genesis of the crime then you discover the background that Hitler’s soldiers called ”lebens raum”, which is based on the grasp: ”Live and don’t give other to live; destroy him physically in order to have what he has” and live even more because it is difficult to set a limit in such things. I guess that the beginning is there, too. Everything has its reasons. Even the physical extermination of another people has its sense when achieving of some governmental goal is in questin. It is proved that one nation can’t have a state that would be populated by the majority of another ethnic group. On the contrary, the domestic nation would’ve become a minority in its own state. At best, such a state would have a lot of various rebellions that would most probably last until the majority takes its place in the state which is de facto their own.
Creating their state, the creators of 1941 Independent State of Croatia were well-known with this. If the Independent State of Croatia hadn’t expanded on the territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Srem (if it had stayed within the borders of the Croatian regional unit (ruled by a ban) from 1939 and if the population register would’ve been done in an honest way) the question of who had been the majority and how many of the population had existed in Banovina would have been aroused. Consequently, there was a lot of space for a new state and a little room for an inhabiting people of that state, because there was a great many of the other people (Serbian people) that should be removed from that space.
It was planned that a third of Serbs should be converted to Catholics and Croats, increasing the number of Croats in that way. The Croatians intended to expel another third of Serbs as well, and the next third of Serbs was planned to be physically destroyed. As the war occasions were going on it happened that something was miscalculated. It occured it is at it easier and safer to kill more people than to remove them. At least, the moving expenses would be reduced. The saying that goes ”The alive will return sometmes, but the deceased person never” was known to the Germans too. Their Special deputy for Balkan, Herman Nojbaher, wrote in his book: ”When Croatian leaders are telling us that they slaughtered a million of the Orhodox Serbs, including the old women, children, women and old men, I think that that is the exaggerating and boast. On the basis of the coming reports that I got, I estimate that the number of the innocent, unarmed and slaughtered Serbs amounts to around 750.000. Countless times I placed on the Headquarters’ agenda the truly terrible things that are going on in Croatia. Hitler answered this way: ”I told to the president of Croatia that it isn’t possible to exterminate that minority because it’s simply too big.”
The number of the population that was in question counted more than a million people. They were the Serbs who were considered the obstacle to the creation of the Independent State of Croatia. The survival of the state requires anything to be done, including the use of fire and sword in order to empty the area from the unwanted people and usurp that area.
There, Sorbona professor Joseph Fisher writes: ”One state organized massive homicide of its citizens, men, women, children and even those children who were still sleeping in their cradles. The murdered had the same language and race as the rest of the citizens of that country. The difference could’ve been established by the religion they belonged to and the nation that the had been derived of it.” The part of sentence ”nation they had been derived of it” opens another questions, something that is strictly hidden, something that would get off the track the happenings.
How much the Croatian Country Commission for inspection of the crime of the occupier and his assistants (that is the commission’s full name) was objective inspecting the real doers of the genocide over the Serbs, Gipsies and Jews, can be shown in this statement of the Commission”: ”None of the criminals in the history didn’t slaughter tens of the people as Ante Pavelic did over his own people.”
This statement of the Croatian Commission, as much as it is counterfeit, is even more unclear to the ”ordinary people.”
It is known that the Chief of the Independent State of Croatia was a Croat and that he was the Head of the Independent State of Croatia. It can be concluded from this statement that the Croat Ante Pavelić ”slaughtered tens of his own people”. Therefore, the Croats. That is notorious lie. The Independent State of Croatia, which Head was (already mentioned) Ante Pavelić, didn’t originate on 10 April 1941 in order to ”slaughter his own people”, but to physically exterminate Serbian people. The reason for this extermination was the wish of the Caholics- Croats together with Muslims from Bosnia and Herzegovina as an added people, to dominate over other nation as the over average population. If the Serbs stayed in that state and Muslims who were of Serbian origin wouldn’t be considered to ”Croats”. Then the Croats would be the national minority in their own state. According to world’s criteria, national minorities can’t create a state where other nation is majority.
Besides, the Independent State of Croatia had a numerous enclaves populated by the majority of Serbian nation or territories populated with the Serbs only. Some of the enclaves appeared on the borders of the neighboring countries and the Adriatic sea coast. In this way, the Croatian State would be cut to few parts as far as its geography, religion and nationality are concerned.That’s why Croatia wouldn’t be able to be compact national state like other European countries.
Therefore, these are the reasons for the physical annihilation of the Serbs in the newly created the Croatian State. The other reasons don’t exist.
The genocide that the Croats-Catholics were doing over the Serbs, Gypsies and Jews was being performed according to German model. Considering their numeracy, these populations didn’t have any essential influence on demographic picture of the Croatian State. Consequently, Croatian National State would not exist if the Serbs stayed in state. That is the main and basic reason why the Croats did the genocide over the Serbs, organized by the newly created state.
As far as the realization of that programnme was concerned, it was perfectly dispensable which political structures took part in that and who were the personalities that led them. In essence, the fact that ustashas were the heads of the state didn’t change anything. It was also all the same who had a role from the Croatian environment to proclaim the independence of the state on 10 April 1941. Those persons could be Kvaternik, Maček or some third person.
Rapidly reducing the number of the Serbian victims of the genocide, the striving of Broz Croats was to impute this crime to ustashas as to ”a few degenerates of the Croatian people.” The same thing is being done by the officials of the present Croatian politics.
There were a few variously punished Croats who were sent to Jasenovac concentration camp of death and who were assisting in the massive liquidations of the rest of the prisoners. Obviously, they weren’t sent there to share the fate of physical extermination with the other convicts. The status of these Croats was equilized in everything with the status of the official representatives of Croatian authority.
Their goal was to atone for their sins and become good Croats. It sould be emphasized that there were those Croats that were against such acts of the Croatian authorities directed toward the innocent people.
These kind of people have their own reasons for having such opinion. Some of them mignt’ve been relatives of the suffering Serbs, or they were supporters of the communist ideas, or, as the various turned down, even found themselves in the Serbian units – mainly the war’s last year and a half. The number of such Croats was almost irrelevant compared to the total victim’s cipher. Different criterium was applied to this kind of Croats. It can be seen from the statement of Dinko Sakić, the commander of Jasenovac concentration camp, who was put on trial in Zagreb in 1999. He says that Vjekoslav Maks Luburić, the commander of all concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia, said:
”Dinko, it is obvious that Germany will lose the war after the fall of Staljingrad, and by the conccurance of the events we are tied to Germans in the fight against communism. We have to be saving the Croatian partisans and communists because, as soon as the war finishes, they will be in the position to protect the Croatian interests. A great many people are idealists and believe that they are fighting for the Croatian state.” Dinko Sakić says further: ”We behaved toward the prisoners as humans in every respect. The proof for that is that a great many of Croatian communists, such as dr Andrija Hebranga, a head of them, dr Anto Cilig and many other Croatian partisans, were released from the concentration camps.”
The fact that the genocide over Serbs was done by the application of sadistic methods that was mainly faciliated by the Catholic church and its priests who were thoroughly involved in such atrocities, following the tradition of the church they belonged to.
Today, everybody tries to deny the existence of the Independent State of Croatia. This is happening because of the fact that the present Croatian State, as a legal follower of the Independent Stae of Croatia, would be obliged to compensate a numerous victims for the damage of robbing and material demolishing of their properties that were done by the Independent State of Croatia as a real ally of the defeated states of the World War II.
These facts are the reasons why the present state Public Institution of the commemorative area of Jasenovac, with dr Zorica Stipetić as a head of this institution, doesn’t accept the proposition of the Asocciation of the World War II of former concentration camp prisoners and their descendants of Republic of Srpska from Banja Luka which is that instead of few tens of thousands of the killed in Jasenovac concentration camp, the number of victims that was estimated by the official commissions and prominent historians should be written on the commemorative plaque. The objectivity and good intensions of these historians and officials of the commissions must not be doubted. If the facts on Jasenovac innocent victims would be publicly presented, then it could be concluded that such a massive genocide couldn’t be done by ” a few degenerates from the Croatian people” i e ustashas as it is interpreted today. However, the genocide over Serbs was being done and organized by the Independent State of Croatia including participants of the whole structure of the political power, the Catholic church and the population. When we are mentioning the statement of the Catholic church here, then, amonh the rest things, we may recall the statement of a catholioc priest who said in the TV show of OTV ”2 and 9” channels recorded on the 25 January 1999: ”The Independent State of Croatia has been created under the Catholic church wings”.
The decree of the article 5 that cencerns the continuity of the Croatian State from 10 April 1941 has been entered 9 in the agreeement about the establisment of the diplomatic relations between Republic of Croatia and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Therefore, the genocide over the Serbs, Gypsies and Jews performed by the Croatian officials during the World War II is in question here and ”a few degenerates from the Croatian people – ustashas” aren’t.
That’s why the name of the Country’s Commission of Croatia ” for the estabblishment of the occupier’s and his assistants’ crime” is a complete lie as far as the title and content are concerned. First of all, as the title says, the Independent State of Croatia wasn’t occupied by anybody during the World War II. As far as the ”assistants” are concerned, it can be talked about the assisting of the Independent State of Croatia to its allies – the Axis Powers. The Independent State of Croatia used to give its soldiers for the war that agressor’s states, with Germany as the leading state, fought at the East Front.
Smaller units of so-called ”occupier”, that were located on the ground of the Independent State of Croatia, were treated as the allies and fought together with the Army of the Independent State of Croatia against the Serbian partisan units appeared on the ground of the Independent State of Croatia as a consequence of the genocide.
On the basis of this it can be ascertained that the attitude of Germany that is refusing the resposibilities for the crimes of the genocide in the Independent State of Croatia is correct. Because those massive crimes, done over the unprotected Serbian population, were exclusively performed by the armed forces of the Independent State of Croatia and other structures of the Croatian State authority without the participation of somebody from the side.
If there wasn’t the partisan’s movement, these few members of the German and Italian military units wouldn’t be most probably stationed on the territory of the Croatian State. Because the most numerous armed forces that were defeated by the partisan military on the mountain of Kozara and the region of Potkozarje (B&H) were the Croatian armed forces.There were 18.000 of Croatian soldiers and 11.000 of Vermahts.
The burning of 365 Serbian villages in Potkozarje has been done by the soldiers of the Independent State of Croatia. 68.600 Serbian civilians Croats took away from this area to gallows into a numerous concentartion camps of death throughout the Independent State of Croatia. Among this Serbian population there were 23.858 of Serbian children who were aged from a day to fourteen years.
Having a lot of proofs and fixed facts, it can be concluded that the most important role in this unheard-of armed undertaking had the autorities of the Independent State of Croatia because, first of all, this Serbian population, that was under the protection of the partisan’s units, should be seized and therefore phisically removed from that area which was exclusively populated by the Serbs.
That’s why Josip Broz Tito (a Croat) and his followers have presented to the public neither his army defeat on the Kozara mountain nor he explained the cause of that defeat. He didn’t do that because he would have to name the culprits of the very commanding structure of the partisan units. It is known that partisan war was the guerilla warfare, and that the concentration of more than 15.000 soldiers on such a small geographic space as Kozara and Potkozarje were unexplicable from the military point of view.
If there were in the partisan Headquarter those who had other plans, their own ones, it should be established by the history science. The fact is that catastrophy has been mainly marked so far, and still is, as ”the Kozara battle” within the Serbian partisan military and population. It has been celebrated (it is still celebrated) as the partisan’s victory.
Here, we will quote some of the collected information on that ”famuous battle” in order to improve that ther isn’t a good reason for that celebration.
Besides the presented dana on civilian victims from Kozara and Potkozarje who were killed in the Croatian concentartion camps of death, there are more information about that such as: burning of the Serbian villages and plundering and demolishing of the properties. Quoting that 25.363 kinds of cattle and 116.750 kg of cereal and many other properties of the peasants, we will get a complete picture of the defeat.
The military losses were:
– foces of Vermaht had 69 dead soldiers, 160 wounded and 7 missed soldiers;
– the losses of the Independent State of Croatia: 445 dead soldiers, 654 wounded and 498 missed soldiers;
– there were 4310 killed captured partisans.
It can be said that those who were imprisoned and led away by the Croatian Army to their death concentration camps neither went out alive from the camps nor their graves are known.
Similar catastrophies experienced the Josip Broz Tito’s Partisan Army on the rivers of Neretva and Sutjeska (which are celebrated as victories too), and catastrophic defeat on the Srem front.
When we bare in mind all of this, a serious question about usefulness of the genesis of the partisan movement on our territory arouses. Another aroused question is if that movement was needed to Serbian people at all. The Serbs fought the Germans and Italians without any objective reason in the war which wasn’t theirs, waisting their humble strength. Instead, their efforts should’ve been directed toward the main enemy, the Independent State of Croatia and its genocide politics and practice, and the porotection of the population from the physical destruction.
Germany, Italy and their European allies would lose the war anyway without the participation of the Serbs. Because of easier understanding of this new comprehension, we will indicate the way of the genesis of the partisan movement in short.
It is known that the Serbian Liberation Movement led by Dražo Mihajlović appeared in Serbia as an aid to the Russian people that was attacked by Germany and its allies amongst which Croatia was included as well. That movement was directed toward the destroying of the communication in Serbia. The intention was to prevent the delivering of the military equipement to the East Front across Serbia. Seeing the damage from such Serbian raid, Germany made a regulation according to which a hundred Serbian hostages would be shot for every killed German soldier. For every wounded German soldier fifty Serbs would be killed. These drastic measures caused the temporary passivization of Draža Mihajlović Movement.
This German regulation had no influence on the Croat Josip Broz Tito who came with his like-minded persons from Croatia to Serbia and attacked Germans in Kragujevac. On that occasion they killed a lot of German soldiers and officers. Then Germans, sticking to their regulation, killed 8.000 Serbian hostages, among which the students and professors of the Kragujevac Highschool were included. Surely, this caused a strong conflict between Tito and Draža Mihajlović. Tito and his followers had to leave Serbia.
Later on, it was found out that Tito and his follwers called themselves communists.
The situation in the Independent State of Croatia, which was expanding on the territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Srem, was completely different. The planned genocide over the Serbs the Croatian state authorities started as soon as the Independent State of Croatia was proclaimed as the official state that happened on 10 April 1941. The slaughtering of the Serbs had begun before that date (in some places in Bosnia and Herzegovina). First of all, it was on the Serbian intelligence turn, and then Serbian priesthood and well-offs. Afterwards, the massive masacres of the Serbian population happened again in Kordun, Lika, north of Dalmatia and Banija. Gospić concentration camps of death began to work. The Croatians closed down these concentration camps and transfered the rest of the prisoners to the area of Jasenovac.
Yet, the Croatians managed to kill brutally and throw into Velebit pits 30.000 Serbs and a small number of Jews in such a short time.
These crimes were preceeded by the Proclamation of Croatian authorities about the handing over of all weapons, including the civilian ones. Those who wouldn’t hand over the weapons were threatened with the srtickest punishments. Then, the record books and real-estate records from the Orthodox churches, courts and cadastre offices were collected and taken away. The aim of this action was to remove all material evidences about the existing of the Orthodox Serbian people and their propertis on the area of newly founded Independent State of Croatia. It is important to emphasize that the collecting weapons were followed by the massive arresting of the prominent people in the areas which were populated by the Serbs because these kind of Serbs would’ ve led the peple against the planned genocide of the Croatin State authorities.
All structures of Croatian authorities, both Catholic church and Croatian population, were included in the whole work.
It is unclear and incorrect comprehension of some people, even some Serbian historians who impute the massive crime to Ustasha’s Movement, who even call the Independent State of Croatia ”The Ustasha’s State”. Even ustashas didn’t want to call themselves the real names, the Klero-Nazists, what they were actually, because they copied Hitler Germans in everything and called themselves S. S. men.
The assertion of the historians that both Germany and Italy created the Independent State of Croatia doesn’t have any strongpoint in history. The Independent State of Croatia was neither created by Germany and Italy nor these states had any influence on the selection of ministres in the Government of the Independent State of Croatia. Both Italy and Germany didn’t have their representative who would be present on the proclamation of the Independent State of Croatia that happened on 10 April 1941. The fact that Germany and Italy had war plans that Croatia, as events turned out, fitted into, doesn’t mean at all that those two states created Croatia. The Independent State of Croatia was created by the Croatian people without the interference of the factor from the side. Naturally, bothGermany and Italy supported the creation of the Independent State of Croatia and they established regular diplomatic relations with Croatia, because Croatia and other states of Axis from Europe (Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania) fitted into their war plans.
The predicted International ragulation conditions for the creation of the Independent State of Croatia existed. These regulations were: territory, population and the authority on that territory. The Independent Croatian State had all the structures of the state power: legislative, executive and court power.Croatia had military, police and other things needed for regular functioning of the state.
Here it is what Dinko Sakić, the commander of Jasenovac concentration camp, said at district office court in Zagreb in 1999: ”The establishment of the Independent State of Croatia is neither the act of Germany and Italy nor Fascism and National Socialism, but the act of the Croatian people that worked and fought throughout the centuries for its state’s independence. The Ustasha’s Movement is nether the act of Fascism nor National Socialism but a special and original Croatian movement for freedon of a man, his faith and consciousness, for social justice and independence of Croatian State, and for a thousand years of constitutionality…” This is what a Croatian husband says, and he says the truth, maybe because under the oath of alligiance where the truth and only the truth is spoken! From here the wrong interpretation of Serbian and other historians and politicians that the Independent State of Croatia was Ustasha’s creation contributes to world’s comprehension that the genocide over the Serbs didn’t happen at all, at least not in such a massive scope. Besides the compensation for the war reparations (for the crimes that are imputed to some Ustashas) can’t be asked from the present state of Croatia, which is a legal follower of the Independent State of Croatia, because these Ustashas escaped abroad as soon as the World War II finished. As for the ustashas themselvesthey were Klero-Nazists, as it has been already mentioned, and such, they were only a segment in the criminal structure of Croatian state.
If the Serbian historiography and politics assessed the factual state, the state as it was, at the very beginning as soon as the World War II finished, and if both Serbian and Yugoslav politics were directed in that direction (at least after the fall of Yugoslavia from 1991), the rest of the world would certainly accept the factual state and oblige Republic of Croatia, as a legal follower of the Independent State of Croatia, which duty is to pay the war compensations because it was a loser in the World War II.
But Serbian politicians and historians a well thought-out Croatian lie that the genocide over the Serbs never happened, and that massive crimes were done by some individual groups (ustashas) and the individuals. That’s why the pure genocide is treated as a war crime over the civilians, and even as common killings. From there, the verdicts to Minister of Internal Affairs and religion of the Independent State of Croatia Andrija Artuković and Dinko Sakić, the commander of Jasenovac concentration camp, that was pronounced by the courts of Croatia, didn’t consist the trial for genocide, because the genocide is a little more serious criminal category from the crime done over the civilians. The genocide over the Serbs was the exact goal of the Independent State of Croatia, the fact that was described ahead.
Because the war crimes do not obsolete, the line for the establishment of the claims for war reparation compensations is still open. At least, the POW’s and their descendants that are still alive should be compensated. There are both moral and honor depts of Republic of Croatia which longs to be included into European integrations. Croatia yearns to join European Union as soon as possible because it singed the Agreement on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations with Federal Republic of Yugoslavia where the continuity of Republic of Croatia from 10 April 1941 was recognized, which includes the World War II period too. The final conclusion is: The Independent State of Croatia was one thing and Ustasha’s Movement something else. The fact that one period of history of the state authorities included a great many of ustashas doesn’t mean that this movement should be accused for the crimes of genocide. And where are the others that were the participiants of these massive liquidations of the Serbian people? They were Croats who lived on the territory of the Independent State of Croatia. They had the Croatian citizenship.
The very name of the concentration camp of Jasenovac is interesting. The actual name was: ”Working service of Ustasha’s Defense, collective concentration camp No.: III.” There isn’t Croatian coat of arms above this title. I guess that this coat of arms presents a state and it is the symbol of a state.
Some authors are trying to show that Jasenovac concentration camp was the camp for convicts that Croatian authority put on trial for punishable acts. There were few of these in this concentration camp (they were put on trial from six months to three years mostly). It was a farce, because these punishments practically didn’t mean anything. These persons were being killed as well as the other prisoners disregarding court verdicts.
The massive crimes of the Croatian officials over the Serbian people Croatian authorities strived and are still striving to excuse themselves by the reign rule of Karađorđević dynasty that ruled in the first Yugoslavia. The Croats claimed and are still claiming that they were oppressed in the first Yugoslavia, which is not true.
The first Yugoslavia was a democratic state that was longing towards the integral Yugoslavia. The register of population on the religion basis was being done on the whole state territory. Therefore the oppression on national basis was impossible. During proclaiming of the Independent State of Croatia that was a propaganda motive for genocide over the Serbs who found themselves living on the borders of that state when the first Yugoslavia fell apart in 1941. Much earlier, the Croats were forcing Serbs to convert themselves to the Catholic religion even during the Austro-Hungarian reing on these areas (around 1102).
The Croats have always considered Muslims from Bosnia and Herzegovina as people whom they would take over for themselves. In 1935 the Croatian magazine named ”Osvit”, that was being published in Banja Luka, wrote and emphasized that ”the Islam element, that lost everything and didn’t have anybody to take care of them, needed to be cared for. Their trouble is the hardest for us.” Soon, the Croats proclaimed this people their ”favourite flowers.” I guess this happened because there wasn’t anybody to take care of them.” The Croats have always projected themselves as the ”victims” of others while trying hard for others to be their own victims.
Let us say this too: In 1941 Croats polled the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina. That territory had only 17% of the Catholic population. What was the reason that Croats proclaimed Muslims their ”favourite flowers” at a time when Muslims asked the autonomy of B&H during the reign of the Turkish occupier over Bosnia. How it comes that they accepted to become ”Croatian favourite flower” without any opposing, though they were national and religion minority in B&H, having less than 5% of population? Tudjman’s Croatia is not giving up the ambitions toward B&H. Probably, the units of Croatian regular Army didn’t fight the latest religion and civilian war in vain (1991-95). This thing is generally known.
Let us go back to the name of Jasenovac concentration camp. The name itself doesn’t tell us what it is about. If an ignorant person walks around that camp and reads the title it would never occur him to think that people, women and children were tortured and killed in this camp in a monstruous way, and that alive people were being thrown in the crematory ovens where both men and women were disappearing in the fire flame, and where the bodies of the people were used as a material for making soap, and where human life worthed only to be destroyed for some higher goals of Croatian State.
Some people call that ghastly place ”a working concentration camp” (Nataša Mataušić), forgetting the fact that concentration camp didn’t originate to be ”a working concentration camp” but a camp of death. The fact is that the production sections and sections of service activities for various kinds of goods were founded in order to exploit the working abilities of the people who were anyway condemned to phisical liquidation. The strength and expert abilities of these people was about to be used to the maximum. When their strength was exhausted they were being killed brutally. Those working in the embarkments were cruelly killed or burried in the embarkment sometimes if they were physically exhausted and couldn’t work as much as they were asked or if the concentration camp guardian didn’t like his physical appearance. The ones who were working in production sections were brutally killed in a short time because they were too exhausted to work or had some kind of illness. When the work was finished the women, men and children in the camp field properties were liquidated too.
The fact that this was the camp for the killing of the Serbs, Jews and Gypsies proves the liquidation of that concentration camp in 1945. The Croatia authorities made a decision that none of the prisoners was about to leave the camp alive. A try of some people to escape on 22 April in 1945 finished unsuccessfully. The insignificant number of people managed to save themselves (over 100 of them).
The Catholic priest and ex commander of Jasenovac and Stara Gradiska concentration camp, Miroslav Filipović-Majstorović, taked about this during the court hearing on 25 June 1945. He said: ”Max Luburić (the commander of all concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia) has told me and to the rest of officers and soldiers personally that the Serbs shoudl be destroyed mercifully at any place, because that was a programme which had to be performed.”
As an addition to this decision, the statement of Ljubo Miloš (one of the commanders of Jasenovac concentration camp) can be included as well. His statement was recorded in the memoirs of Vlatko Maček, the president of Croatian Country’s Party. Namely, Vlatko Maček was intern to Jasenovac concentration camp because the authorities of the Indepoendent State of Croatia concluded that he wasn’t reliable enough because ha was sharing the room with Ljubo Miloš. Knowing what Ljubo dod in the camp and that he was saying grace before going to bed, he asked him: ”Are you afraid of God’s punishment? Miloš replied quiockly and frankly that the other was amaxed. ‘Don’t ask me about that,’ he said,’because I am totally aware what I can expect for my acts in the past, present and future. I’ll finish my life in Hell, at least I’ll be burning for the Croatians’ sake.” The last few words fits into the newest sloga from nowadays: ”All for Croatia, Croatia for nothing.”
It was necessary to mask the concentration camps with some ”working service” in order to transform Croatian State into slaughterhouse, creating the state in blood of the innocent, because there were those Croatian Superiors who actually counted on the fact that the war ally, Germany, could lose the war, that would mean that the Independent State of Croatia would lose the war too. It was well known what was waiting the war losers. This fact should be kept in mind, if it happened that Croatia was about to lose the war. Then, the camps should be treated as ”Working Services of Ustasha’s Defense” what couldn’t include Jasenovac concentration camp, and the war crimes should be minimized and attched to ”a few Croatian degenerates”. Such massive crimes, which were done over the Serbian people not only in Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška concentration camps but on the whole territory of the Independent State of Croatia, could be performed only by participation of all structures of Croatian authority, various organizations, the Catholic church and the whole population. Today, the Independent State of Croatia is tried to be presented by some people as if it didn’t exist.
During the World War II the same attempt was going on. The Quisling Germany and Italy were were the states that helped Croatia to originate. They were the inspirators and organizers of the genocide in Croatia as well. These states were the ones that guaranteed the existence of the Independent State of Croatia. ”Brotherhood and unity of the Serbian and Croatian people that were achieved in NOB (National Liberation Fight in World War II)” were based on this empty phrase. What a lie! What an irony too!
Certainly, there were some Croatians in the Serbian partisan units who were mostly communists especially assigned to convince Serbian fighters with a well-thought out lies that their main enemies were Germans and Italians (as the occupiers of Croatia), and that they should fight against them. The crimes of genocide were skillfully hidden and the facts that ”a few Croatian degenerates” was taking away the Serbs temporary to different concentration camps and that those people would return to their homes as soon as the war finished, and that Ustashas would be punished, were heavy lies. Going away of the Croatian communists to partisan units was directed by the highest representatives of the Communist Party.
In order to prove that that happened in that way we’ll cite the parts of letter that communists from Stara Gradiška concentration camp addressed to Central Committee of Communist Party of NDH (Independent State of Croatia) on 15 August 1944.
In March this year we sent you a detailed survey of circumstances in Stara Gradiška concentration campthat contained the names of the slaughtered and killed interns from 1March to the end of that month. From the material we sent you you could get the real picture of unberable state that is ruling in the concentration camp. The report we sent you contains a few questions of great importance for us and our work in the camp which has the following meaning:
1. What is your general attitude toward the concentration campp?
2. Is there any possibility for something to be done; Is anything done that has a goal that is about to change the state in which we are now, the state that is becoming worse and worse and that transforms into complete liquidation of prisoners because of the strong blows of Red Army and Allies and heroic NOB (National Liberation Fight)?
3. What do you intend to do in order to prevent this gradual and complete liqidation of all prisoners which,in our opinion and according to ustashas’ behaviour, they will certainly try to do?
4. What is your opinion about organized stroke from inside, which cause would be our liberation, that wouldn’t have a chance to succeed without the assistance from outside?
You haven’t answered these questions and requests for four and a half months now.
We are conscious of the difficulty of the work that is rested on you in these decisive absent hours. We are aware of the troubles around the establishment and maintenance of the connections between you, as the highest forum, and concentration camps, but we can’t be convinced by anybody that you couldn’t establish the connection among detachments on the mountains of Psunj and Kozara (partisan’s detachments). Therefore, we critisize the comrades and O. We want to point out the slovenliness of the Committee which sphere of activity includes the concentratin camps, because they couldn’t establish the connection with the concentration camps. They can’t make excuses, such as the impossibility of making connection, becuse we are known with the possibilities that are placed at their disposal.
This protest of ours is neither faintheartedness nor despair and losing the militancy and leaving the battle that is fought against the enemy. We are directing this protest to you in an hour when we are gathering all our strength being conscious that we need most of decisiveness, self-sacrifice and will to fight and endure until the end, even if we are about to be left to ourselves we will stay consistent, faithful, loyal and energetic as we are asked by the Lenjin-Staljin Party. If we are going to be abandoned, left without anybody’s help and killed, we will die brave being proud because we belong to the glorious that is led by an exemplary fighter – Comrade Tito. This protest is not a voice of an cowardice though it is being addressed in a moment when the comrades from our surroundings are being tormrnted, killed and thrown into the river of Sava. The best of our she-comrades are being put in the cells for solitary confinement and then slaughtered.”
The response on this protest excepted from the communist comrades from the Croatian concentration camp of Stara Gradiška hasn’t been waited for a long time. In the letter from 28 August 1944 the Central Committee of Comunist Party of the Independent State of Croatia, among the other things, wrote:
”The thought of liberation from the concentration camp in today’s circumstances is not about to be carried out. It mean the trowing into death majority of the comrades.’
This kind of attitude toward their comrades and other prisoners in Jasenovac concentration camp was kept by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Independent State of Croatia until the end of existence of all concentration camps.
As soon as the concentration camp authorities had liquidated all prisoners (there were a little more than 100 that saved themselves), burnt or destroyed significant number of concentration camp buildings, the partisan units entered concentration camps. According to the order of dr Andrija Hebrag, the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Independent State of Croatia, the parts of the building and other traces of the torturing of prisoners that left were destroyed and removed later on.The main goal of this action was to exterminate the traces of the concentration camp. This is especially referred to Jasenovac concentration camp.
There were two reasons for this kind of attitude of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Independent State of Croatia.
The first reason was that the aim of the Comminist Party of the Independent State of Croatia wasn’t to save Serbs liberating the concentration camps.
The second reason was that the Serbian units (there weren’t others) weren’t allowed to liberate the camps earlier and find out what was happening in those camps.
The impression that those units would’ve got, could’ve provoked different reactions.
Let us mention that the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, including Croatia, had worked in the strickest illegality before the break of World War II. The Party was forbidden because of its destructive activity in the state. The cadres of this Party infiltrated in the ranks of the Serbian Partisan units (under false Orthodox names). They kept the important positions there, mostly because the fighters in these units were uneducated people who came from the country’s environment, while the Croatian partisans performed massive purges and liquidations in the towns where there were a lot of educated Serbs. One part of the Serbian population was expelled from the towns to Serbia, while the other part was driven away to a numerous concentration camps of death in order to be physically destroyed.
The Communist Party had clear political goals. One of them was to gain adherents through so-called antifascistic fight. The other goal was to win the power forcefully in the postwar period through various of frauds. Therefore, the main aim of the fight was directed against ”the domestic traitors”. First of all, they ment on the Serbian Liberation Chetnik’s Movement led by Draža Mihajlović who was appointed to the minister of the Army and Navy of the exile Government of Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The Communist proclaimed this government as the traitor one, accusing the Government for leaving the people and fight and escaping abroad with the ”cases” that contained gold. The aim of Draža Mihajlović Movement was salvation of the Serbian people from unnecessary dying in the war that was led for the interests of the World’s Forces. Secondly, he and his movement followers longed to provide the conditions for the return of the exile government to the country. They strove for the continuity of work of the democratic institutions that had existed before the break of the war.
The aim of Tito and his communists was against that and the establishment of the governmental structure in Yugoslavia as it was in Soviet Union. Since Josip Broz Tito had worked and lived in the Soviet Union and Commintern before the war broke, he knew how the communists who had ”tails” got off there and the ones who could’ve been recruted into different enemy services. The recruitment happened mostly in the concentration camp and prisons. He and his National-Communists didn’t care for the Communists in the concentration camps of the Independent State of Croatia, and they didn’t put effort to save them. One of the recruited communist prisoners was dr Andrija Hebrang who was exchanged from Jasenovac for some less irrelevent persons. But, later on he was imprisoned and executed.
As far as the Serbs, who were exposed to massive destruction, were concerned, the aim of National-Communists was to lessen the number of Serbs in postwar Yugoslavia. That was shown in the fact that everything was being done in order to break up and divide the territory of Serbia. Republic of Macedonia was artificially created out of the south part of Serbia. Both Bulgarians and Greeks weren’t thinking of making Macedonian Republic from their own governmental territory. Therefore, two provinces (Vojvodina and Kosovo) were singled out from the governmental territory of Serbia. The individual and political units were creared out of two of them. Surely, Tito and the ”vassals” from the Serbian people participated in this.
During the lasting of the war there was a serious intention to establish material damage and, at least, the approximate number of victims. Another intent was to consolidate the number and names of the war criminals. On 8 May 1944, the governmental services for performing of this large and, at the same time, important job were formed, first of all because of delivering of the war reparation claim to the states that lost the war. The troops of these states did the crimes and damages to the occupying areas in Yugoslavia.
The ruler book of the State Commission was made because of this abundant job. The commissions of federal units, such as Territorial and Provincial commissions in Vojvodina, were formed for this purpose. The field Commissions for Kosovo and Istra were formed too. 65 Commissions in district were formed as well, 292 in administartive districts and 1210 in counties. There was significan number of persons that were collecting the evidences.
The State Commission (Federal one), County’s Commission and their services collected 90.000 applications for war crimes. During their work, 550.000 records of interrogated witnesses and doers were made. 20.000 of enemy original documents, more than a thousand of other materials (press, various publications, posters, copies of documents), over 5000 photographies of war criminals, 170 proposal and analyses were made. It was made 120.000 decisions according to which 65.000 of war criminals were proclaimed. Though a lot of people work on making the ends of proofs meet was done, it became evident that the work were about to be stopped.
In 1946, the District Commissions and lower officials were abolished in that way. The Country’s Commission stopped working in 1947. By the decree from 14 April 1948, the Governmental Commission ceased to work.
According to some unconsolidated testimonies, B&H and Croatia made a proposal for the end of work of all commissions. Among the other things, the reasons for this had been obvious, because every second Croat and Muslim from Herzegovina would’ve been proclaimed to a war criminal.
In view of the fact that the affairs around the setting of the most approximate numbers of the victims didn’t meet the ends, because the parity of victims in republics would be desturbed and because it would turn out that the Croatians with the assistance of Muslims killed incomparably more persons in Yugoslavia then the occupiers and the rest ones did it, it was being done anything that would create a great confusion so that all the affairs around establishment of the number of the victims would be stopped in order to manipulate with that subsequently.
However, we will list demographic and war losses in Yugoslavia during the World War II. The diversity of assessments of the number of victims can be noticed from the presented details. The investigators concluded that the number were very high and that the assessments were very different. The datae of both demographic and war losses that are equal were the ones investigated by Životije Đorđević and Delfo Vogelnik, which doesn’t mean that they are the most correct. The information of both Vladimir Žerjavić and Federal Statistics Bureau are approximate.
|The source of
|Desimir Tasić|| 2.428.000
|3.||Federal Statistics Bureau|| 2.056.000
|4.||Bogoljub Kocović|| 1.985.000
|5.||Vladimir Žerjavić|| 2.022.000
|6.||Životije Đorđevic|| 2.825.000
Table 1: The population loss in Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945
According to datae from F. Statistics Bureau and the information collected in 1964, 74.360 children aged a day to fourteen years were murdered in the Independent State of Croatia from 1941 to 1945. Since the very high ciphers of the war losses of the population in Yugoslavia (1941-45) were in question, it was almost impossible that the job around the establishment of the number of victims of genocide wasn’t serioisly comprehended and completed. That’s why neither the Ninberg Court nor the judicary of the Second Yugoslavia and Federal Croatian units, including Republic of Croatia, didn’t sentenced both Independent State of Croatia and her officials and organizations for the crimes against civilians and the crimes of genocide.
The net of various influental persons, that were existing on all levels, both in the country and abroad, was spread on the ground of Yugoslavia and directed toward the hiding and minimizing of the Croatian genocide crimes over the Serbs. In 1950, Yugoslavia delivered memorandum on genocide over Serbs in the World War II to the Organization of the United Nations.This memorandum contained a request for forming the International Court for ustashas’ criminals trial. This document contained a list of war criminals too. However, this document disappeared from OUN archive, and it was never replied. It was the most probable thing that no one from Yugoslavia insisted on the response.
Naturally, there are those that are to be blamed for this, and they should be asked both in the Serbian leading cadre and a cadre on Republic and Federal level. It is known that the main representatives of the Serbian people in the Republic, state, provincial and district organs were: ”A. Ranković, M. Đilas, P. Stambolić, B. Jovanović, M. Minić, Đ. Pucar, J. Veselinović, V. Vlahović and others. It is knowm too that the Serbs were the most numerous people in Yugoslavia, disregarding the immense war and population losses. The Serbs could’ve undertaken some steps for the consolidation of the whole truth about the war victims.
The named personalities had to know what was the bulk of the genocide that the Independent State of Croatia did over the innocent Serbian people. So, the massive couldn’t be done by ustashas only. Actually, the genocide was organized by the Croatian State. Consciously or unconsciously, the named ones were hiding the crimes and the criminals and therefore took a part in these crimes. Since the war crime doesn’t have a limitation period for expiration, the present court authorities of Republic of Serbia, in such a changed political situation, should bring criminal charges because of establishment of criminal responsibilities of the named and other persons. This court procedure was about to be brought according to the OUN Convention 141 and 145 articles of the Criminal law from the period of Yugoslavia from 1950.
The names of the concrete persons who participated in the hiding of war criminals, and who took a part in the very crimes, could be consolidated during the court procedure. The ciphers mentioned ahead are showing that the massive crimes performed by the Independent State of Croatia can’t be hidden.
The present leaderships of Republic of Serbia and Republic of Srpska do not know or don’t want to know mentioned facts out of the reasons unknown to the public. According to the information collected so far, they need to deliver a claim for war reparations of the Serbian victims of World War II to Republic of Croatia that is a legal follower of the Independent State of Croatia. That was done most probably by the state of Israel and its organization. The damage for all Jewish people who suffered in holocaust was accepted by Republic of Croatia. There is a legal basis for this request, because the agreement about the establishment of diplomatic relations between Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Republic of Croatia set the continuity of the existence of the state of Republic of Croatia from 10 April 1941, that includes the whole period of the World War II.
The Reparation Commission of the Government of Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia established that the total number of victims was 1.706.000, of which the occupier and his assistants are responsible for (more occupiers than the assistants).
There were serious initiatives for the establishment of the approximate number of victims. But, the results of these investigations remained unknown to the public. A serious step toward publishing of the results was done in 1950 on the proposal of League of World War II Veterans’ Asocciations, but withou success.
There were attempts of deceiving of the public. So, it happened in 1946 that the State Commission assessed that the number of war crime victims was 505.182! It was said that the victims of military formations weren’t included in this nimber. This could mean that there was the tendency of hiding the genocide victims that Independent State of Croatia did immediately after the end of the war. This kind of practice had a function of deluding, it was in a great disharmony with the datae of Reparation Commission of the Federal Government (1.706.000).
That wasn’t the only propaganda that originated from the high state power that was deceiving the public. The illusion was performed in different ways. The aim of this illusion was to hide the truths on causes and performers of the genocide. Everything was being done in order to impute (if not possible to hide) the crimes to occupiers , first of all to Germany and Italy. The stories were yet spreading during the war, especially after the end of the war. It was false assertion that the Germans had a decisive role in the very foundation of the Independent State of Croatia and that this state wouldn’t originate if there wasn’t the active participation of Germany. It was claimed that the Germans and Italians participated with ustashas in the liquidation of ”our peoples” in the Croatian concentration camps. That was a pure fabrication calculated in a way that the genocide over the Serbs should be imputed to occupiers only, and that ustashas of the Independent State of Croatia were mere performers of the orders of ”their masters”, Germans. Let us hear what Ljubo Miloš, the commander of Jasenovac, has to say at postwar court hearing: ”As far as the relations with Germans are concerned, a kind of concentration camp as Jasenovac was had absolutely none relations with Germans. As long as I was in the camp none of the Germans entered inside. Certainly, it can be applied to whole time of the existence of Jasenovac concentration camp. I will exclude a case when a German officer flew down his plain at the very concentration camp. I’ve mentioned this before.
The reason why Germans weren’t allowed to enter the concentration camp was the attitude Luburić possessed (the commander of all concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia) who didn’t allow anyone to interfere in his affairs, especially Germans.
(From the book ”Concentration camp of Jasenovac, page 1065, author Antun Miletić)
If the Germans were the inspirators and organizers of the genocide in the Independent State of Croatia, how it happened that they never had the official visit to Jasenovac concentration camp in order to see how the project on genocide over the Serbian people in the Independent State of Croatia was carried out in action. On the contrary, we will quote an example telling that Germany and its leadership had another attitude as far as the Croatian genocide over the Serbs is concerned. In such way, in September and October 1942 the Croats collected all Serbian population from eight Serbian villages in Župa Gora (Petrinja County) and deported to Jasenovac concentration camp.
Since Edmund Glaston Horstenau, the German general, visited all robbed and mined Serbian villages in the Independent State of Croatia, he protested at the office of the president of Croatia, dr Ante Pavelić, and asked the strickest punishments against the performers and commanders of this crime, calling them ”criminals and murderers.”
On the basis of this request, the chief, dr Ante Pavelic, took measures against the responsible persons: Maks Luburić, Ljubo Miloš and Dido Kvaternik. Those were the temporary measures because these three persons were the important lever of the Independent State of Croatia. The Independent State of Croatia wouldn’t exist if these three men took active part in its creating. The main condition for the genesis and existence of the Independent State of Croatia was the genocide ovr the Serbian people. The strickest punishments of criminals and murderers, as German general called them, weren’t even talked about.